Motivation is one superior tool for subordinates are willing to work hard and work smart as expected .. Knowledge of the pattern of motivation help managers understand the work attitude of each staff. Managers can motivate staff varies according to each motif pattern of the most prominent. Staff need dimotivasikarena no new staff would be motivated to work after her supervisor. Motivation arising from the outside is called extrinsic motivation. On the other hand, there are also staff who work on the motivation of his own. Motivation arising from within oneself is called intrinsic motivation. Intrinsic motivation is usually more lasting and effective than extrinsic motivation. If someone managed to reach his motivation, it is concerned tend to keep motivated. Conversely, if a person often fails to realize his motivation, it is concerned may remain resilient keep trying and pray until his motivation is reached or even become desperate (frustration).
This module contains the definition and understanding of different motivations and motivation with the motives, the benefits of motivation theory, motivation theory of Maslow’s content, Murray, Alderfer, Herzberg, McGregor, Lewin & Vroom, McClelland; and process motivation theories of Porter-Lawler expectancy theory, theory of behavior Skiner, Porter-Lawler theory, theory of justice, and the theory of White. Finally, this module is closed with motivational techniques.
b. Understanding Motivation and Motif
Motivation is the desire to do something. The motive is the need (need), desire (wish), urge (desire) or impulse. Motivation is contained on one’s desire is to stimulate individuals to perform the actions or something that became the basis or reason a person behaves. Work motivation can be interpreted as a desire or needs that shape a person so that he compelled to work.
Person’s motivation is determined by the intensity of his motive. The question is important for managerial skills, “How to create motivation of staff of TAS?”
Motivation is a psychological process that encourages people to do something. Motivation can come from within and outside one’s self. Motivating yourself let alone motivate others or subordinates is not an easy job. Especially against people who are already aged over 40 years, or an employee that is long enough to cultivate the same job, while the increase in rank and position are less likely. Routine work is often experienced as a deep saturation that can lower achievement motivation is also exacerbated by working conditions that do not support. In motivating subordinates, manager or leader to deal with two things that affect people in a job that is willing and able. Willingness can be overcome by providing motivation, while the ability can be overcome by conducting training. Therefore, it can be formulated that human performance that seemed influenced by motivation and ability to function.
Motives tend to decrease its power when it is fulfilled or obstructed fulfillment. Gratification of a need may be hampered and that person then despair (frustrated). But there is also a tenacious to overcome obstacles and eventually succeeded.
c. Benefits Motivation
Motivation is very important for PRINCIPAL in improving performance (performance) depends on the performance of its staff because of the motivation, capabilities, and environment. The formula is:
Performance (K) = function of motivation (m), ability (k), and the environment (l) or K = fm, k, l.
Capabilities = aptitude x training x resources.
Motivation = willingness x commitment (Hunsaker, 2001)
d. Motivation Process
The process of motivation exemplified by Gibson, et.al (2000:128)
e. Types of Motivation Theory
1) Maslow’s Theory
Divide Maslow hierarchy of human needs over five, namely:
1. Achievement; Head Sekolahalisasi, challenging ourselves Jobs
2. Status: Needs Title, awards
3. Friendship needs a friend in the group, Stability
4. Safety needs: retirement benefits (a sense of security) Protection
5. Physiological needs: Basic salary
2) Theory Murray
Meanwhile, the theory needs according to Murray (1938) assumes that humans have a number of kebuthhan that motivates him to do. Human needs, according to Murray are: (1) achievement of the work, (2) affiliation, (3) aggression, (4) autonomy, (5) to show off, (6) heart, (7) memelihaara rapport, ( 8) governing (ruling), (9) strength, and (10) understanding. Murray presented these needs are categorization alone, man actually needs it very much, complex, and not limited.
3) Theory Alderfer
Motivation according to the theory of Alderfer (1972) mentions that the man had a need for an abbreviated ERG (Exixtence, Relatedness, Growth). Man according to Alderfer intrinsically want to be appreciated and acknowledged its existence (existence), want to be invited, and involved. In addition, social human beings want to touch or mix with other people (relationships). Humans also like to always increase their living standards to perfection (like always growing).
4) theory of Herzberg’s Two Factor
Table .2. Herzberg Two factor theory
Motivation Factors (Intrinsic) Factors Health (Extrinsic)
1. Achievement (achievement)
2. Award (recognition)
3. Work itself
5. Growth and development 1. Supervision
2. Working conditions
3. Interpersonal Relations
4. Pay and security
5. Company Policies
5) Theory X and Y of McGregor
Table 3. McGregor’s Theory X and Y
Human Human Type X Type Y
1. Lazy to study and or work (passive))
2. Want to work when ordered, threatened, or forced
3. Glad to dodge responsibility.
4. Not enough to be ambitious and men only.
5. Does not have the ability to independently
1. Diligent study and or work (active). Working is so fun to play.
2. Working on his own consciousness, lack of supervised fun and creative in solving problems.
5. Being able to control himself achieve organizational goals (independent)
6) Expectation of Lewin’s theory and Vroom
The theory of expectation (hope) was developed by Lewin and implemented by Vroom specifically in the practice of motivating. Expectations theory has assumptions: (1) humans are usually put value to something he expected from his work, therefore, man has an order of enjoyment (preference) among a number of results he expected, (2) an attempt to explain the motivation contained in anyone else should consider the results achieved, he also considers the belief that the person who done contribute to the achievement of expected goals.
7) Theory McClelland
McClelland explores the theory of motivation which is closely linked to learning theory. McClelland (1962) argues that much needs obtained from the culture.
Three of McClelland’s needs are:
(1) need for achievement (need of achievement), abbreviated to n Ach,
(2) the need for affiliation (need of affilition) abbreviated n Aff, and
(3) the need for power (need of power) is abbreviated n Pow.
Achievement motivation is encouragement from within ourselves to overcome all challenges and obstacles in achieving goals. Affiliation motivation is the urge to connect with other people or encouragement untukmemiliki friend as much as possible.
Motivation is a powerful incentive to influence others to submit to his will.
People who motif is characterized by high achievement motivation:
(1) We are responsible for everything that he does self-associate in a future career or life, do not blame anyone else through his faults;
(2) Trying to look for feedback on everything he does-always willing to listen to others’ opinions to the inputs in improving themselves;
(3) Dare to take risks with the full calculation (challenging and materialized)-more than others, is superior, want to create the best;
(4) Trying to do something innovative and creative (something new, something that is second to none)-lots of ideas, and able to realize his ideas well. Want to work freely, not like the system that limits its movement to a more positive direction. The strength comes from your own actions instead of someone else;
(5) Feeling persecuted waKepala Schools-clever set waKepala The school, which can be done now should not be delayed tomorrow, and
(6) work hard and proud of their achievements.
People who are high bersahabatnya motif characterized by:
(1) More love with others than alone;
(2) Frequently communicate with others;
(3) More prioritizing personal relationships rather than tasks;
(4) Always deliberation and consensus with others;
(5) More effective when working with other people
People who motif is characterized by high rule:
(1) Very active determine the direction of the organization’s activities;
(2) Very sensitive to interpersonal influence, and the group;
(3) Giving priority prestige;
(4) Mengutakan work tasks rather than personal relationships;
(5) Like ruled and threatened with sanctions
8) Behavior Theory Skiner
Formation theory of behavior proposed by Skiner (1974) states that that influence and shape work behavior is called the formation of behavior.
Example: The manager will not change the behavior of employees from discipline to discipline. To motivate the discipline, the manager gave a gift to the discipline and punishment for those who are not disciplined. The result is generally more effective disipin given to employees who received an award as compared to that get punished.
9) The theory of Porter-Lawler
Porter-Lawler motivation model describing.
10) Theory of Justice
The theory of justice states that the factor of justice / fairness that affects the motivation of staff. Same position, same workload, the same work experience, job performance should be the same as well as wages. Justice is felt by every individual with other individuals when they are reasonable.
11) White Theory
According to White’s theory as quoted Handoko (2003) states motf money is not guaranteed to improve human performance. Because the human need for money sometimes have a point of saturation so that money is no longer motivate people. In addition, people can refuse the money because the tasks assigned to him beyond his ability.
The technique can be used to motivate, there are several steps, namely:
1. Increasing commitment to achieve the goal through clarification and staff participation. 2. Strengthen efforts to improve the performance in the hope of getting engahagraan. 3. Provide rewards that are meaningful to staff,
4. Using the positive stimuli, 5. The award is given on the right waKepala School. 6. The award is given in a fair and reasonable. 7. The award is given based on work prestasii. 8. Help staff to achieve them.
9. Redesign of the task to motivate the staff 10. Give staff opportunities to learn (Hunsaker, 2001)
In addition, there are other motivating techniques that can be made to the subordinate is called the principle of the abbreviation MOTIVATE (Verma, 1996) namely:
M Manifest artimya foster greater self-confidence when delegating tasks
O Open means to foster greater confidence when delegating tasks
T = Tolerance means tolerance for failure, and be willing to learn from mistakes because the experience is the best teacher (Increase creativity).
I mean Involve all stakeholders in the work (increase the sense of acceptable and commitment)
V Value means the expected values and recognized in a good performance (what gifts to get, and how to get it)
A Align means to balance the goals of work (projects) with the target individuals (people eager to reach satisfaction they desire)
T Trust means the honesty of each member of the team (vital in motivating)
E Empower means to empower each team member reasonably
(Especially in decision-making and implementation)
Porter and Lawler expectancy model presents a number of how managers motivate subordinates as disclosed Nadler & Lawler (1977) as follows. (1) of the award is adjusted to the needs of subordinates, (2) describe the expected accomplishments, (3) presasi create a challenging and achievable, (4) connected with the achievement award, (5) analysis of the factors that are contrary to the effectiveness of the award, and (6) The determination of appropriate awards.
How to Empower Your Own Potential / Introspection: 1) waKepala School and mind yourself, 2) the level of intelligence, 3) emotions and feelings of self, 4) determination and perseverance,
5) the principle of life, 6) the achievement of success, 7) the poison of life,
8) toleansi, 9) confidence, 10) the value of life, 11) understands the nature of truth, 12) building self-reliance, and 13) using a force of nature (Djidji Suryadi & Hartoto Hendradjaya, 2001).
How to Empower Others D Potential Apat MADE BY THE WAY, SBB: 1) Observation
2) Ask the nearest person on the relevant.
3) Learn the history of life, 4) Recognizing reputation, prstasi, and lifestyle. 5) Using the potential of test instruments, 6) Knowing hobbies and habits, 7) Check the corresponding 8) Knowing her social environment. (Djidji Suryadi & Hartoto Hendradjaya, 2001).
Motivation is one superior tool for subordinates are willing to work hard and work smart as expected. Motivation arising from the outside is called from within the intrinsic extrinsic motivation. Motivation is the desire to do something. The motive is the need (need), desire (wish), urge (desire) or impulse. Motivation is very important for PRINCIPAL in improving performance (performance) depends on the performance of its staff because of the motivation, capabilities, and environment.
Maslow’s motivation theory includes the theory, Murray, Alderfer, Herzberg, McGregor, Lewin & Vroom, McClelland, Porter-Lawler, Skiner, Porter-Lawler, justice, and White. Techniques to motivate use MOTIVATE.
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