Decision-making often we do every day but we unknowingly. The task of a manager
or leader is a daily decision. Often many decisions that must be taken every
day, but sometimes there is only one single day we make decisions alone. This
depends on needs. Making decisions and solving problems is one of the roles to
be played every leader and manager. All management functions such as planning,
organizing, motivation, leadership, communication, coordination, and supervision
and management requires decision making and problem-solving.
Changes in circumstances very quickly becoming the factors that must be
considered in management that encourages managers to be able to make some
decisions in the right waKepala School and quickly. To be able to compensate for
rapidly changing school waKepala, a manager must be able to face at least three
challenges are: (1) an extremely complex situation, (2) the uncertain
circumstances, and (3) claims to be able to act flexibly.
The quality of a decision is a reflection of its managers think. Therefore,
thinking in terms of making decisions and solving problems should be sought so
as not to stray into the street that is not effectively and efficiently.
This module discusses the understanding of decision making, decision-making
process, and examples of how to make a decision.
Decision making is the process of selecting a number of alternatives. Decision
making is important for educational administrators for the decision making
process has an important role in motivating, leadership, communication,
coordination, and organizational change. Each level of school administration
decisions hierarchically. Decisions made by administrators influence on customer
education, especially students. Therefore, every educational administrator must
have the skills to take decisions quickly and accurately.
Decision Making Model
1) Model Mintzberg, Drucker, and Simon’s
Mintzberg, et.al. (1976) provides for three stages in the decision making
(A) phase identification,
(2) stage of development, and
(3) the selection stage.
Drucker (1993), an expert on organizational leaders to give the six steps in the
decision making process, namely:
(1) define the problem,
(2) analyze the problem,
(3) develop alternative solutions,
(4) decide on one best solution,
(5) plan for effective action, and
(6) monitor and evaluate the results.
Simon (1997) Nobel laureate in decision-making theory describes the decision
process into three phases, namely:
(1) intelligence activities,
(2) design activities, and
(3) selection of activities.
Based on the three opinions mentioned above, it can be concluded that the
decision making process includes three activities, namely:
(1) identification and selection problems,
(2) developing alternative problem-solving, and
(3) choose the best solution to the problem.
Each model has a common basis for decision making. Decision model can be
categorized based on rational decision making model, the classical decision
making model, decision-making models of behavior, Vroom & Yetton model (decision
tree), decision making model Chung & Megginson, and decision-making model
2) Rational Decision Making Model
The decision can be divided into two types which are programmed (struKepala
Sekolahred) and is not programmed (unstructured). Programmatic decisions are
decisions that are always repeated. For example: the decision increases pesera
class students, the appointment decision, the decision of setting salaries for
new employees, retirement decision, and so forth. The decision is not programmed
to deal with decisions taken or a new and complicated situations. The following
figure illustrates the process of making programmatic linkages with
decision-making is not programmed in the model of rational decision making.
3) Classical Decision Making Model
Classical model of decision making assumes that decisions are rational process
in which decisions are taken from one of the best alternative. Classical model
based on the concept of complete rationality (complete rationality). In
accordance with the classical model, decision-making process is divided into six
logical steps as shown in the picture below.
4) Decision Making Model Behavior
This model is based on the extent to which that decision can provide
satisfaction. This model also considers the decision-making on the basis of
contextual rationality and rationality retspektif. Contextual rationality means
that decisions are based not only by the express provisions (textual), but also
the implicit (contextual).
5) Model Vroom & Yetton (Decision Tree)
6) Decision Pengambian Carnegie Model
This model is more recognized for satisfaction, limited rationality, and a
coalition of organizations. The distinction between rational decision making
with the Carnegie shown in the table below.
NO. Rational Model Carnegie Model
Much information is available Little information available
Cheap Expensive, because it is still seeking information
Bound value-free value
Alternative Alternative bit much
The decision was taken unanimously by a compromise decision, approval, and
accommodation between the coalition of organizations
Chosen the best decision for the organization selected a satisfactory decision
the organization (Jones, 1995)
7) Decision-making Model of Leadership Style Chung & Megginson
8) Model Based Decision Making Benefits The idea is:
(1) decision quality,
(2) creativity decision,
(3) acceptance decisions,
(4) understanding the decision,
(5th) consideration of the decision,
(6) accuracy of the decision.
9) Model Based Decision Making Problems
There are three specific tendencies that could damage the group’s decision
process, namely: (1) group mind, (2) changes in risky, and the escalation of
10th) Field Based Decision Making Model
This model is the most widely used school because the school wanted to involve
the participation of citizens in making decisions. Five important techniques in
making decisions based on the field are:
(1) brainstorm (brainstorm)
(2) nominal group technique, (3) Delphi technique,
(3) the defense that challenged what was considered good (the devil’s advocate).
11) Decision Making Model Tree Problems
The problem is poor education management
One result is the low quality of education
The cause is not established planning, implementation, inaccurate, not strict
Selected longer a priority as one cause of improper implementation.
Causes of improper execution of the work was the low motivation of teachers,
lack of educational leadership, slow to solve problems, lack of good
communication, and lack of good coordination. Causes of improper implementation
should not be the same meaning as weak coordination, others less well
coordinated or coordination has not been effective.
Problems are selected based on its authority and interests of the organization
concerned. Do not take this issue outside of our authority. Because it is not
our main task
Table 2. RPL Assessment Criteria and Weights
Weight of Re P L
1 Realistic (Re) Parkatis (P) legalistic (L)
2 Re Very Very Very L P
3 No No P No L Re
4 hesitated hesitated hesitated
5 P Very Very Very Re L
Table .3. Best Alternative Selection
Realistic problem solving Resources
Good for the organization of authority (legalistic) RxPxL
Improve the system of leadership training with educators Sending appointment
further studies education management
*) The best solution is decided for the selected
Managerial Decision Type
Chung & Megginson (1981) provide a typology of managerial decision was based on
two dimensions related to the problem, namely: (1) komleksitas problems, and (2)
the impact of uncertainty. The following figure shows the four types of
The complexity of the problem
No. High Low
A judgmental decision Decision Not sure
2 (Example: marketing, example: research
3 Investment and development issues, and planning long-term
4 Personnel organization
5 Decision analysis Decision programmed
6 Example: a routine problem, Example: production
7 And the complex of scheduled activities, and must have technical problems
Figure 8. Managerial Decision Type (Chung & Megginson, 1981)
1) Decision of the Poor Response
2) The decision of the Authority
3) Decision of Interest
4) Majority Decision
5) Decision consensus
6) Round Decision
The task of a manager or leader is a daily decision. Decision making is the
process of selecting a number of alternatives. Model of decision making: (1)
Mintzberg, et.al., (2) Drucker, (3) Simon, (4) rational, (5) classic (6)
behavior, (7) Vroom & Yetton (decision tree), (8) Carnegie, (9) Chung &
Megginson, (10) based on utility, (11) based on the problem, (12) based on the
field, and (13) tree problem. c. Decision making method comprising: (a) lack of
response, (2) authority, (3) minorities, (4) majority, (5) consensus, and (6)
Anonymous. 1986. Integrated Quality Improvement. Sydney: National Productivity
Centre Department of Labor.
Chung, K.H. & Megginson, L.C. 1981. Organizational Behavior Developing
Managerial Skills. New York: Harper & Row, Publishers.
Drucker, P.F. (1993). Management: Tasks, Responsibilities, Practices. New York:
Jones, G.R. 1995. Organization Theory, Text and Cases. Massachusetts:
Addison-Wesley Publishing Company.
Lunenburg, F.C. & Ornstein, A.C. 2000. Educational
Administration Concepts and Practices, 3rd Edition. Belmont, C.A.: Wadsworth
Simon, H.A. 1997. Administrative Behavior: A Study of Decision-Making Processes
in Administrative Organizations. 4th Edition. New York: Free Press.
Mintzberg, H., Raisinghani, D. & Theoret, A. (1976). The Structure of
Unstructureed Decision Process. Administrative Science Quarterly, 21, pp.246-275